Both a Cyborg and a Goddess

R. Joshua Scannell, ‘Both a Cyborg and a Goddess: Deep Managerial Time and Informatic Governance’, pp.247-273, in:

Behar, K. (Ed.), 2016. Object-oriented feminism. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

p.247

[Referencing Jasbir Puar (2012)]

Affective intensities, distributed bodily information, data trails, teletechnology, all commingle in a constantly productive distribution of posthumanist political modulations that are the target of what Gilles Deleuze identified as “the society of control.”

Puar metonymizes these analytics as goddesses and cyborgs. On the one hand, the reified humanist categories of goddess identity and personhood render a political imagination that exotifies both the sub- jects it seeks to represent and the political systems that oppress them. On the other, the teleological technical determinism of the cyborg easily slips into a sort of pseudo-intellectual “disruptive” solipsism. Surely, she claims, there must be cyborg goddesses in our midst.

It is my contention that a figure with the attributes of the cyborg goddess has emerged, but that it is not human.

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Technical Mentality

Gilbert Simondon, ‘Technical Materiality’ (previously unpublished essay), pp.1–15, in:

De Boever, A., Simondon, G. (Eds.), 2013. Gilbert Simondon: being and technology. Edinburgh Univ. Press, Edinburgh.
p.1
Leaving Antiquity aside, technology has already yielded in at least two ways, schemas of intelligibility that are endowed with a latent power of universality: namely in the form of the Cartesian mechanism and of cybernetic theory.

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A Thousand Reps

Amy Ireland and Linda Dement, ‘A Thousand Reps’, 2016

http://runway.org.au/a-thousand-reps

The unacknowledged status of reproductive labour has traditionally been connected to socialist-feminist responses to capitalism, identified as a site from which protest against the system as a whole can be activated, without necessarily questioning the logic of reproductive labour itself—as a form that reinforces a single, heteronormative mode of creativity.

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(Un)dressing the interface

Brahnam, S., Karanikas, M., Weaver, M., 2011. (Un)dressing the interface: Exposing the foundational HCI metaphor “computer is woman.” Interacting with Computers 23, 401–412. doi:10.1016/j.intcom.2011.03.008

p.401

This focus on dialogue—interaction with a ‘‘second person’’ interface—has eroded the boundaries separating human beings from machines, calling into question the uniqueness of human intelligence and the sacredness of human personality and identity.

What both metaphors fail to acknowledge is that computers are not simply tools or personas. They are complex. In our interaction with them, they define who we are.

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Metaphor and Materiality

Judy Wajcman, ‘Metaphor and Materiality’, pp.102-130, in:
Wajcman, J., 2004. TechnoFeminism. Polity, Cambridge ; Malden, MA.

p.102

Technology is an intimate presence in our lives and increasingly defines who we are and how we live. Just as the typewriter and the automobile were icons of freedom for women in the discourse of modernity that presaged first-wave feminism, so cyberspace and cyborgs have become ubiquitous postmodern symbols for feminism today.

Women’s lives have changed irrevocably during the twentieth century, rendering traditional sex roles increasingly untenable.

The Cyborg Solution

Judy Wajcman, ‘The Cyborg Solution’, pp.78-101, in:
Wajcman, J., 2004. TechnoFeminism. Polity, Cambridge ; Malden, MA.
p.79
Feminists were among the first to make the links between reproductive technologies, genetic engineering and eugenics.
[…] the focus of much of the early analysis by radical feminists was a determination to reclaim motherhood as the foundation of women’s identity. Implicit in this view is a concept of reproduction as a natural process, inherent in women alone, and a theory of technology as patriarchal, enabling the male exploitation of women and nature.
Like ecological feminists, radical feminists celebrated the identification of women with nature and saw women as having a special responsibility to ensure the integrity of human and natural life on earth.

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Virtual Gender

Judy Wajcman, ‘Virtual Gender’, pp.56-77, in:
Wajcman, J., 2004. TechnoFeminism. Polity, Cambridge ; Malden, MA.
p.57
Progress is still defined by technological enterprises, but it is digital rather than space technology that now excites the imagination with its more immediate and accessible possibilities. Rarely having made it into outer space, little wonder that feminists have seized upon new digital technologies for their potential to finally free women from the constraints of their sex.
p.59
The conviction that the Internet is the solution to social disintegration and individualism is no less popular than the idea that it will accelerate these trends.

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The Burden of Representation

Tagg, John (1988) The Burden of Representation.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

p.48

Yet the daguerreotype survived, at least until the introduction of carte-de-visite photographs, patented by Disderi in France in 1854. Carte-de-visite photographs were paper prints from glass negatives, mounted on card and produced by use of a special camera with several lenses and a moving plate holder. With such a camera, eight or more images could be taken on one plate and the prints from it cut up to size. Since unskilled labour could be used for many of the operations involved, the productivity of the operator and printer could be increased virtually eightfold. The basis was laid for a mass production system in which the actual photographer was no more than a labourer.

p.93

The extreme development of the socio-technical division of labour has produced a multiform ensemble of experts and technicians – including all kinds of photographers – who have direct and localised relations with particular domains of knowledge and particular institutions, who have an intimate familiarity with the specific constraints which hold there, and who are therefore capable of locating and marking the weak points, the openings, the lines of force.

p.111

From its very beginning, the history of photography had been the history of an industry. The impetus for its development came from a vast expansion of the market for reproductions – especially portraits – which both necessitated and depended on a mechanisation of production which could guarantee the cheapness and availability of the images but also, so it seemed, their ‘authenticness’. Its subsequent growth was that of an arena of enterprise ripe for entrepreneurial exploitation, driven by needs alternatively manufactured and supplied by an unlimited flow of commodities. It was, in short, a model of capitalist expansion.

p.114

We have seen how the production of still photographs was already by the 1880s subject to an elaborate division of labour controlled by entrepreneurs like Nadar who, on returning to photographic portraiture in the changed economic conditions of the last quarter of the century, took control of an extensive photographic business even though he did little more than receive sitters into the studio and direct the setting of poses.

p.118

Photography as such has no identity. Its status as a technology varies with the power relations which invest it. Its nature as a practice depends on the institutions and agents which define it and set it to work. Its function as a mode of cultural production is tied to definite conditions of existence and its products are legible and meaningful only within the particular currencies they have. Its history ~as n.o unity. It is a flickering across a field of institutional spaces. It is this field we must study, not photography as such. 

p.119

Photographies (the word does not sit happily in the plural) are discursive practices and, as Foucault has stressed: “Discursive practices are not purely and simply ways of producing discourse. They are embodied in technical processes, in institutions, in patterns for general behaviour, in forms for transmission and diffusion, and in pedagogical forms which, at once, impose and maintain them.”  For this reason, one cannot ‘use’ photography as an unproblematic ‘source’. Photography does not transmit a pre-existent reality which is already meaningful in itself. As with any other discursive system, the question we must ask is not, ‘What does this discourse reveal of something else?’,but, ‘what does it do; what are its conditions of existence’ how does it inflect its context rather than reflect it; how does it animate meaning rather than discover it; where must we be positioned to accept it as real or true; and what are the consequences of doing so? 119

pp.164-165

Photographs and photographic practice appear as essential ingredients in so many social rituals – from customs checks to wedding ceremonies, from the public committal of judicial evidence to the private receipt of sexual pleasure – that it has become difficult to imagine what such rituals were like and how they could be conducted before photographs became widely available. It is difficult precisely because the internal stability of a society is preserved at one level through the naturalisation of beliefs and practices which are, on the contrary, historically produced and historically specific. It is in this light that we must see photographs and the various practices of photography.

pp.165-166

Photography is a mode of production consuming raw materials, refining its instruments, reproducing the skills and submissiveness of its labour force, and pouring on to the market a prodigious quantity of commodities. By this mode of production it constitutes images or representations, consuming the world of sight as its raw material. These take their place among and within those more or less coherent systems of ideas and representations in which the thought of individuals and social groups is contained and through which is procured the reproduction of submissive labour power and acquiescence to the system of relations within which production takes place. In this sense, while it is also used as a tool in the major educational, cultural and communications apparatuses, photography is itself an apparatus of ideological control under the central ‘harmonising’ authority of the ideology of the class which, openly or through alliance, holds state power and wields the state apparatus. 

pp.167-168

The point to which I want to return and lend real emphasis is that when we deal with photography as ideology we are not dealing with something ‘outside’ reality: a looking-glass world related to the real world by laws of reflection and reversal. According to Althusser, ‘An ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices. This existence is material.’ ‘Therefore,’ as Pierre Macherey has argued, ‘to study the ideology of a society is not to analyse the system of ideas, thoughts and representations (the “history of ideas” approach). It is to study the material operation of ideological apparatuses – to which correspond a certain number of specific practices.’

p.187

The photographer turns his or her camera on a world of objects already constructed as a world of uses, values and meanings, though in the perceptual process these may not appear as such but only as qualities discerned in a ‘natural’ recognition of ‘what is there’. By more or less conscious adjustment of an infinite field of significant determinations ranging from the arrangement and lighting of this ‘world of objects’ to the mechanics and field of view of the camera and the sensitivity of the film, paper and chemicals, the photographer abstracts from the distribution of reflected light from the objects to procure a pattern of light and dark on paper which can in no way be regarded as a replication of the ‘given’ subject. This pattern on paper is, in turn, the object of a perception – or reading – in which it is constituted as a meaningful image according to learned schemas.

p.190

From this point of view, ideology will be seen as a mode of accommodation between the regime of truth and the domain of prohibited desires, whose effectivity lies in the manner in which it can bring both into play: on the one hand, naturalising the regime of truth and, on the other, ameliorating the disruptive effects of desire, the sources of whose prohibition is, in the process, completely erased. It is this form of collusion of power and the unconscious which remains entirely unmoved by ‘rational’ analysis.

p.198

If the institutions or apparatuses which constitute the technology of power in a particular society form a cluster, not an organic system, then an intervention in one apparatus, or around the conditions of possibility of struggle within it, does not threaten to collapse the whole structure nor necessarily entail any effects in the other apparatuses or mechanisms which make up that structure. This is not to say, however, that such an intervention may not affect the others, which may be non-continuously directed towards some common or convergent, emerging or incoherently defined end, without sharing a common ruling and prior-existent ‘purpose’ in the Hegelian sense, even where a consciously arrived at ‘plan’ may exist.

What is opened up is the possibility of the emergence, construction, restructuring or re-orientation of the various apparatuses.

pp.204-205

What Berger appeals to is a ‘future’ which serves both as a hope, a profession of faith, and a standard by which present actions may be judged. What historical research produces is no such grand plan but a constantly changing ground of tactical actions whose strategy may be stated only in terms so generalised as to be of little analytical use, though they may have a function in political rhetoric. What such historical analysis offers practitioners is not the heroic chance to measure themselves against the future, but a multiplicity of points of intervention, limited objectives, courses of action open now, ends that can be achieved through struggle: an unremitting ‘war of position’ in which the smallest gain may hold significance for a chain of related struggles.

p.205

Such a prospectus for action may lack the emotional appeal and attraction of the Utopian projection. It may not offer the guarantees of historicism. But it does have the incomparable advantage that it begins in the present, in the topography of existing apparatuses and institutions, in a concrete analysis of the uneven terrain in which the struggles must be waged. Its ‘revolution’ is not to be put off till the millennium. Its forces are not to be gathered for the ‘moment of becoming’. Its ‘revolution’ is a potential now and everywhere.

p.211

We must not allow ourselves the expedient of imagining something existing ‘before’ representation by which we may conveniently explain the representation away. Where we must start is with concrete material activity and what it produces. We must begin to analyse the real representational practices that go on in a society and the concrete institutions and apparatuses within which they take place. We must plot the network of material, political and ideological constraints which bear on these institutions and constitute their conditions of existence and operation. We must describe the function of ‘specific’ individuals within them and their production of ‘operatives’ to staff them. We must establish the material, social and symbolic contexts in which they are sited, in which they operate and in which they intervene .

Only in this way will we come to understand how ideologies are produced in real representational practices, in material apparatuses; how these representations are disseminated, consumed, elaborated, modified and sustained; how they are meaningful; how they affect and are affected by other productive activities within the same social complex. And all this is to be done by studying actual material entities and processes, entirely without the need for pregiven mental or spiritual phenomena. This, then, would be the beginnings of a materialist account.

An Eternal Esthetics of Laborious Gestures

Allan Sekula, “An Eternal Esthetics of Laborious Gestures,” Grey Room 55 (Spring 2014): 16–27. (doi:10.1162/GREYa00142) [http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/GREY_a_00142]

p.17

The art of photography has been persistently haunted by the image of human labor.

In short, the very being of photography turns on a vexing puzzle of labor and value.

[citing Gérard Fontallard’s 1839 cartoon Talent through Sleep]

Pictured here s the most austere and debased – and lazy and thus clever – form of the photographer’s existence a proletarian of creation . The contemporary French legal throrist Bernard Edelman invented this apt term to describe the condition of the mid-nineteenth century photographer as producer of images who enjoyed no property rights – no author’s right – to the photograph because it merely duplicated the visible features of objects that were already the property of others.

p.18

There is, then, something poignant and unwittingly reflexive about photography’s long-standing obsession with the image of the working body. It is as if photography as an institution were compelled to compensate for a primal lack, to answer a nagging doubt about its own claims t  creative authenticity, and sought both disavowal and solace in the image of work.

[regarding Moholy-Nagy’s photograms of hands]

The hand here os the locus of a nostalgic organicism predicated on the ritual banishment of the camera from the productive process: a ghost hand, as dumbly inert as Fontallard’s sleeping photographer.

pp.19-20

[Barthes, commenting on The Family of Man, 1956]

“[…] because of the very differences in its inevitability: we know very well that work is “natural” just as long as it is “profitable,” and that in modifying the inevitability of the profit we shall perhaps one day modify the inevitability of labour. It is this entirely historified work which we should be told about, instead of an eternal aesthetics of laborious gestures.” [Barthes, Mythologies, 1972]

p.20

[Sekula describes a spread from the book of The Family of Man, in which workers hands are displayed]

p.21

Who today still speaks, even coyly, about “modifying the inevitability of profit”?

[Sekula cites Mulvey in an essay that calls for a new approach to the theory of fetishism in late capitalism]

Nonetheless, Mulvey’s economic argument constitutes a surrender to fetishized categories […]

[Sekule cites Lipietz and his claim that the ‘exoteric economy’ conceals an underlying ‘esoteric economy’.]

pp.21-22

If the Barthes/Lipietz idea of a linkage between the inevitability of profit and that of labor is correct, then something substantial is contested in the representation of work. If Mulvey is correct, our attention might as well fall elsewhere, somewhere outside.

p.22

[Sekula discusses irony of celebrating the birthdays of technologies]

p.23

If, following Marx, we argue that the human use of tools and machines – the working of resistant matter – produces a second nature, what is the second nature produced by photography?

Isn’t photography’s affiliation with technical progress most clearly announced when it abandons first nature altogether and generate images of an already manufactured second nature, as in the many photographs of machines made for industrialists during the mid-nineteenth century?

But the key to the invention of photography as a transformative fine art turns on the iconography of the human body, as I’ve already suggested with the image of the hand. The represented body, within the frame, conjures up a recognition of the presence of two other bodies, that of the photographer and that of the spectator.

p.24

[Sekula describes the two images used by Life Magazine in 1988 to illustrate the birth of photography. One is Niepce’s heliograph of 1826 (rooftops) and the other is Daguerre’s Boulevard du Temple, c.1838.]

p.25

If this is capitalist space, then the bootblack melts into the invisible crowd, into the bastract flux of buyers and sellers of labor power. But if this is, however briefly, a precaptialist, courtly encounter, he must be named a servant, according to the customs of an earlier epoch that, in the words of Agnes Heller, “did not distingush reified and non-reified forms of objectification”.

In restarting the history of photography with the stopping of a bourgeois body in the act of consumption, Life both adumbrates and obscures its own vitalist myth, its commitment to the capturing of life on the run. What is celebrated? The static moment of consumption, the fashionable pose. What is obscured, denied, disavowed? The productive moment, the energetic blur of that other body, unacknowledged, the working body, the invisible shoeblack. A silhouette and a blur. The former is enough to give us a fictitious identity, replete with style. The latter gives us only this: an instance of average labor, eminently replaceable, eminently forgettable, vaporizing in the flux of the moving throng.

This refiguration of a specifically bourgeois subjectivity at the origins of photography occurred at the end of a decade of unbridled upper-class consumerism in the United States, a decade in which the exoteric economy indeed seemed to create money out of money. The gentleman, “frozen in history,” having his boots polished to a highly reflective shine, is really a historicist prefiguration of a specifically postmodern urban-bourgeois subjectivity, an enlightened shopper. And the vaporized shoeblack is the complementary, negative prefiguration of the contemporary transnational elite’s geo-economic restlessness in scouring the globe for newer, cheaper, post-Fordist labor markets.

This may seem like an exaggerated and crude economic allegory, but I think it appropriate for the upscale sensibility addressed by the new Life magazine. Janis’s bracketed Pre-Raphaelite refusal of modernity is, of course, entirely compatible with the consumerist side of this sensibility, with Ralph Lauren, for example.

Paternalist reveries of a smaller and simpler world of dandies and lackeys do nothing to challenge, and are not incompatible with, a neo-Malthusian brutalism, a brutalism that blames the poor for the mud on the boots of the rich.

The Feminization of Labour in Cognitive Capitalism

Cristina Morini, 2007. The Feminization of Labour in Cognitive Capitalism. Feminist Review 40–59.
p.41
Women from the world’s under-developed countries have been transformed into salaried substitutes of the reproduction of women from the developed countries, at the expense of their own capacity or wish for reproduction; women in the developed countries are driven towards production or indeed towards a future where life is artificial and/or sterile.

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